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SUGGESTED WORDS AND PHRASES FOR INTERPRETING A LITERARY TEXT

(taken from «Методичні вказівки до семінарських та практичних занять з стилістики англійської мови для студентів IV курсу. (Видання 2)» / Уклад. Воробйова О.П., Бойцан Л.Ф., Ганецька Л.В. та інш. – К.: Вид. центр КНЛУ, 2001. – С. 60-64.)

 

1. Defining the message

            message

to convey / render / accomplish ~ (effectively, vividly)

to impress the   ~ upon the reader

to identify the ~ (by scanning the text for specific details)

to be relevant for / related to the ~ of the story

the ~ is primarily conveyed by (the protagonist, narrator etc.)

the ~ is intensified / accentuated / reinforced by (setting the action in / the contrast in the exposition / the minor characters etc.)

to collate the meaning of each word with the ~

to affect the understanding of the ~

the ~ is inferred from / embodied in

to determine the ~ retrospectively

to represent the ~ by suggestive rather than by direct expression

to probe into the ~

 

theme

to identify the ~ (by skimming the text)

to develop the ~

thematic planes

 

            problem

to raise /pose the ~ of

to recall the reader to the main ~

to reveal the relevance of the ~

 

            response

to give an immediate personal ~

to give a more considered ~

to give rise to / evoke / arouse / elicit the reader’s intellectual and emotional ~

to stir one’s ~

 

conflict

external /internal ~s

a ~between a man and the established order / between one set of values against another set of values

 

            detail

artistic ~s are suggestive of / suggest a whole life story

to linger on certain ~s

 

2. Composition and plot

            plot

to form the ~ of the story

the ~ is comprised of the exposition, complications, climax, denouement, and ending

the ~ involves (repetitions etc.)

the ~ unfolds / moves towards / returns to

the ~ is based on / is built around (several conflicts etc.)

the ~ is conventionally structured / is constructed in a circular pattern

to increase the credibility of the ~

to arrange the components of the ~ structure

the ~ is simple / complex / intricate

 

            structure

the over-all ~ of the story

plot ~ techniques:

a straight line narrative ~ (in chronological order)

a complex narrative ~ (with flashbacks)

a circular pattern narrative ~ (the closing event returns the reader to the introductory part)

a frame narrative ~ (a story within a story)

a tightly knit ~

the underlying compositional ~ (сюжет) vs presentational sequencing (фабула)

 

            story

to set the ~ in

to advance the actions of the ~

the span of time covered by the ~ is

a one-scene ~

the impact of the ~

the pivotal elements of the ~

the reader receives the ~ through the eyes of  ~ -teller

the opening / closing sentence / paragraph of the ~

 

narrative techniques

retardation

flashbacks (to the past)

foreshadowing (towards the future)

direct address to the reader

to establish a personal relationship with the reader

 

            suspense

to heighten / intensify / increase ~

 

            event

to arrange the ~s in a chronological /non-chronological order

unexpected turns of  ~s

to give a biased understanding of ~s

to misinterpret the ~s

 

            setting

to establish / devise the ~ of the story

the description of the ~ is scattered all over the text

domestic interior, realistic, historical, fantastic, exotic, rural ~

 

            digression

to interrupt the narrative with ~s

to make a ~

to be disrupted by ~s

to resort to ~s

 

            denouement

to leave out the ~

to place the ~ at the beginning of the story

 

            exposition

extended ~

the ~ tunes the reader to

 

ending

surprise ~

outcome

to foreshadow the ~ of the story

cohesion

means of ~

 

3. Narrative method

 

            narrator

a reliable / unreliable ~

the omniscient (analytic) author

the observer-author, on-looker

first person / third person

the ~ enters into the mind / reveals the personality of /shares the viewpoint of / gives a biased view of

 

            narrative method

to adopt a certain ~

 

            standpoint

to view the events from somebody’s ~

to support one’s ~ with reference to the text

 

            viewpoint

the sequencing of ~s

to express the author’s ~ directly

to reveal the author’s ~ standing

to adopt one’s ~

shifts in the ~

the dominant ~

 

            polyphonic story

 

4. Characters and Means of Characterization

 

            character

means to bring ~s to life

to reveal the dynamics in the psychological state of a ~

to reveal certain features of the ~ , their motive and morals

to place the ~ in a recognizable environment

protagonist (main / central / major ~) vs antagonist and minor ~s

to use dialogue to create reality in ~ and episode

simple (flat) / complex (well-rounded / well-conceived) ~s

to visualize / depict / portray / describe the ~

to structure the ~ round one key quality

to define the ~ closely
to contribute to ~ development

clearly outlined ~ s

the contrast typifies the ~ (protagonist) as

to evaluate / assess / rate / judge ~ ‘s  actions

 

            characterization

direct / indirect ~

means of  ~

-         presentation of the ~ through action

-         speech characteristics

-         psychological portrayal

-         the portrayal of a ~ (through appearance)

to reinforce ~

to contribute to ~

 

            foil

to serve / act as a ~ to (for)

 

5. Tonal System

tone (slant, vein)

formal, semi-formal, informal, conversational, casual, sympathetic, cheerful, vigorous, serious, humorous, mock-serious, lyrical, dramatic, exciting, agitated, passionate, dispassionate, impassive, detached, matter-of-fact, dry, impartial, melancholy, moralizing, unemotional, pathetic, sarcastic, ironical, bitter, reproachful etc. –

to assume / set up / establish a formal etc. ~

the ~ is maintained by / to give a melancholy (ironic) ring to the story

~ -shift

 

            atmosphere (mood)  

peaceful, cheerful, mysterious, cheerless, gloomy, pensive etc. ~

to create / convey / evoke the ~ of

 

            humor

~ is attained / achieved by / developed through

 

            attitude

agreeable, optimistic, involved, detached, impassive, indifferent, critical, contemptuous, ironical, cynical ~

to evoke / share a certain ~

to assume a detached ~

 

            effect

humorous, satirical etc. ~

to contribute to the total ~

 

            interest

to catch and hold the reader’s ~

to sharpen the reader’s ~

to puzzle the reader

to awaken / arouse / retain ~

 

            overtone

emotional ~s vs the prevailing to

 

6. Imagery. System of Images

           

imagery

to use ~ to excess

extensive use of ~

 

            image

micro- ~,  extended ~s, synthetic ~s,

hierarchy of ~s:

            character ~s, landscape ~s, animal ~s

            the story abounds in certain ~s

 

            association

to bring ~s into play

 

            insight

to give ~ into (one’s value system or view of life)

 

            impression

to increase the immediacy and freshness of the ~

 

            connotation

to acquire / lose specific ~s in the specific context emotionally colored / charged words

 

            charge

to acquire expressive / emotional ~ and become a key-word

 

            symbol

traditional / personal ~


 
 
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