DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPAL CONCEPTS (TO SEMINAR 1-3)
(taken from «Методичні вказівки до
семінарських та практичних занять з стилістики англійської мови для студентів IV курсу. (Видання 2)» / Уклад.
Воробйова О.П., Бойцан Л.Ф., Ганецька Л.В. та інш. – К.: Вид. центр КНЛУ, 2001.
– С. 6-7.)
The object of science is a certain phenomenon,
or a system of objects which exist irrespective of the cognizing and
transforming role of human mind.
The subject-matter of a science covers one or several
aspects of the given object.
uses three basic approaches to language investigation: a) substantial, b)
structural, c) functional.
According to the substantial approach, language units and their subsystems are
viewed through their material form. According to the structural approach,
language units and their subsystems are viewed from the standpoint of their
structure and the relations between the units. The functional approach aims
at investigating the outward aspect of language units as well as their subsystems
through studying these units within a wider system or environment.
Function is a role of a language unit or a
subsystem of such units in communication.
Aim at large is a presupposed result of
conscious human activity.
Pragmatic aim is the aim which consists in changing the state of the listener
as the result of communication.
Linguistic (constructive) aim lies in building an utterance from the structural elements of a
language for achieving a certain pragmatic aim.
Stylistics is a linguistic discipline which
studies nominative and communicative language units and the principles
according to which the units of all language levels are selected for achieving
a certain pragmatic aim in different communicative situations.
Information, in terms of philosophy, is the
inner content of the process of reflection which results in changing the
characteristics of some objects due to the influence of other objects they
Denotative information is the contential nucleus of
language unit which 1) names the subject-matter of communication; 2) is not
predetermined by the communication act; 3) directly or indirectly refers to the
object or notion of reality.
Connotative information is the contential periphery of a language unit which:
1) depends upon different aspects of communication act (time, participants
etc.); 2) expresses the speaker’s attitude to the subject-matter of
communication, to the listener or to the social status of the interlocutors.
Message is the information which the
speaker intends to transmit to (or, rather, to provoke in) the listener.
Signal is the information materialized
verbally (e.g. in a sound form) or non-verbally (e.g. a dance, a piece of music
etc.), as a text etc.
Communication channel is constituted by the
physical, situational, cultural, social, economic, or political environment in
which the signal is transmitted.
Language is the system of signs, the
relations between them and the rules of their usage.
Speech activity is the process of converting the language system into
speech in accordance with fixed rules and patterns.
Speech is the materialization of language
Paradigmatics is a set of relations between the
language units of one class which are based on association.
Syntagmatics is a set of linear relations
between the speech units of one level within a unit of a higher language level.
An expressive means
(EM) is a marked
member of a stylistic opposition which has an invariant meaning in language.
A stylistic device
(SD) is an
intentional change of a fixed (usual) distribution of language units in speech.