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(taken from «Методичні вказівки до семінарських та практичних занять з стилістики англійської мови для студентів IV курсу. (Видання 2)» / Уклад. Воробйова О.П., Бойцан Л.Ф., Ганецька Л.В. та інш. – К.: Вид. центр КНЛУ, 2001. – С. 6-7.)

The object of science is a certain phenomenon, or a system of objects which exist irrespective of the cognizing and transforming role of human mind.

The subject-matter of a science covers one or several aspects of the given object.

Linguistics uses three basic approaches to language investigation: a) substantial, b) structural, c) functional.

According to the substantial approach, language units and their subsystems are viewed through their material form. According to the structural approach, language units and their subsystems are viewed from the standpoint of their structure and the relations between the units. The functional approach aims at investigating the outward aspect of language units as well as their subsystems through studying these units within a wider system or environment.

Function is a role of a language unit or a subsystem of such units in communication.

Aim at large is a presupposed result of conscious human activity.

Pragmatic aim is the aim which consists in changing the state of the listener as the result of communication.

Linguistic (constructive) aim lies in building an utterance from the structural elements of a language for achieving a certain pragmatic aim.

Stylistics is a linguistic discipline which studies nominative and communicative language units and the principles according to which the units of all language levels are selected for achieving a certain pragmatic aim in different communicative situations.

Information, in terms of philosophy, is the inner content of the process of reflection which results in changing the characteristics of some objects due to the influence of other objects they interact with.

Denotative information is the contential nucleus of language unit which 1) names the subject-matter of communication; 2) is not predetermined by the communication act; 3) directly or indirectly refers to the object or notion of reality.

Connotative information is the contential periphery of a language unit which: 1) depends upon different aspects of communication act (time, participants etc.); 2) expresses the speaker’s attitude to the subject-matter of communication, to the listener or to the social status of the interlocutors.

Message is the information which the speaker intends to transmit to (or, rather, to provoke in) the listener.

Signal is the information materialized verbally (e.g. in a sound form) or non-verbally (e.g. a dance, a piece of music etc.), as a text etc.

Communication channel is constituted by the physical, situational, cultural, social, economic, or political environment in which the signal is transmitted.

Language is the system of signs, the relations between them and the rules of their usage.

Speech activity is the process of converting the language system into speech in accordance with fixed rules and patterns.

Speech is the materialization of language in communication.

Paradigmatics is a set of relations between the language units of one class which are based on association.

Syntagmatics is a set of linear relations between the speech units of one level within a unit of a higher language level.

An expressive means (EM) is a marked member of a stylistic opposition which has an invariant meaning in language.

A stylistic device (SD) is an intentional change of a fixed (usual) distribution of language units in speech.


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